Perpetual Peace

A Philosophical Sketch by Immanuel Kant 1795 Whether this satirical inscription on a Dutch innkeeper's sign upon which a burial ground was painted had for its object mankind in general, or the rulers of states in particular, who are insatiable of war, or merely the philosophers who dream this sweet dream, it is not for us […]

The Schuman Declaration

The Schuman Declaration was presented by French foreign minister Robert Schuman on 9 May 1950. It proposed the creation of a European Coal and Steel Community, whose members would pool coal and steel production. The ECSC (founding members: France, West Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg) was the first of a series of supranational […]

The Ventotene Manifesto

In 1941, the anti-Fascist activists Ernesto Rossi and Altiero Spinelli, placed under house arrest on the Italian island of Ventotene, draw up a manifesto for a free and united Europe. Towards a free and united Europe The Ventotene Manifesto, whose full title is "For a Free and United Europe. A draft manifesto", was drawn up […]

The 12 points of the Hertenstein Programme (21 September 1946)

From 15 to 22 September 1946, militant federalists from 14 European countries met in Hertenstein, Switzerland, with a view to adopting a common declaration laying the foundations for a European organisation of federalists, which became the Union of European Federalists (UEF) on 15 and 16 December 1946. ENGLISH TRANSLATION September 1946 ORIGINAL IN GERMAN Das […]